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As a philosopher who rethought much of philosophy and theology, Zubiri felt it necessary to be in continuous dialogue with earlier thinkers both to avoid past mistakes and to extract all that is valuable from them. The theme of the present book is the transcendental in Western philosophy and how a firm grasp of it reveals underlying unity in Western philosophy, but also fundamental problems that Zubiri believed require a complete rethinking of certain basic notions and theories.

Zubiri develops this theme by analyzing the work of six major philosophers: Aristotle, St. Thomas, Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, and Hegel. To conclude, he sketches his own resolution of the problems of Western philosophy, a subject addressed in greater depth in his major work, Sentient Intelligence. This translation was made possible by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Culture. And so with due respect and great pleasure we begin with his observations on the subject of Metaphysics. Let us importantly add that while Aristotle did not know what existed, he explained to us the method so that we could work this out.

Thus Aristotle's words and ideas are very important, for within them are the clues to the solution of his problem of 'what exists', as we shall endeavor to explain and solve. Some philosophers have fallen into this opinion in the same way that they have into other paradoxes. They are confronted by an esoteric argument, find it impossible to refute and end up by giving in to it and accepting its conclusion!

This explains the confusion of some, Now a definition arises from the necessity that words have some meaning; for the definition is the account of which the word is the sign. Aristotle , Metaphysics Rather, they start this, displaying it to the senses, This sort of procedure is inductive and it is as plain as a pikestaff that it does not amount to a demonstration of essence or of what it is to be a thing. Aristotle , Metaphysics..

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Aristotle , Metaphysics Aristotle , Metaphysics But also philosophy is not about perceptible substances they, you see, are prone to destruction Aristotle , Metaphysics The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. Aristotle , Metaphysics However, there is a science higher than natural science.

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For in truth nature is but one genus of that which is. Aristotle , Metaphysics It is the principles and causes of the things that are that we are seeking, and clearly it is their principles and causes just as things that are It is, however, vital not to overlook the question of what it is to be a thing and the definitional account of how it is what it is. If we leave these out, scientific inquiry is mere shadow boxing Aristotle , Metaphysics And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has.

Metaphysics is the name given by scholars to a treatise of Aristotle. Aristotle described the subject of his treatise in a number of different ways which he regarded as equivalent.

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He called it the study of the first principles of things. He said it was the science of existence in general, or of 'being as such', contrasting it in this respect with the various special sciences which each studied only one part or aspect of being. He described it also as the study of ' substance ', a term which occupies a central position in the work of most of the great metaphysicians who came after him.

What is Metaphysics? (Definition)

Substance he declared to be what primarily existed, and was prior to all other things in respect not only of existence, but of explanation and of knowledge as well; that is to say, the explanation of anything else involved the idea of substance; knowledge of anything else involved knowledge of substance; and the existence of everything else depended on the existence of substance.

Metaphysics , then, is regarded by Aristotle as a single, comprehensive study of what is fundamental to all existence, all knowledge and all explanation. It will at once be evident that different identifications of substance, i. The Physics and connected works contain discussion and analysis of such concepts as nature, change, chance, time, place, continuity, infinity, growth; proofs that movement is eternal and that there is an eternal Prime Mover ; and much doctrine as to the actual constitution and workings of the universe.

The argument for a Prime Mover starts from Aristotle's conception of change and causation. There could not be an absolutely first or last change. For since change implies pre-existing matter or potentiality and a pre-existing efficient cause to impose form on the matter to actualise the potentiality , there must have existed before a supposed first change something capable of being changed and something capable of causing change. But then to explain why these potentialities for being changed and for causing change were actualised at a certain time just priori to that time, that is, a change before the supposed first change.

Change therefore, or movement , must be eternal This Prime Mover, eternal, changeless and containing no element of matter or unrealised potentiality, keeps the heavenly bodies moving and maintains the eternal life of the universe He recognized that theories must wait upon facts, and if at any future time they are ascertained, 'then credence must be given to the direct evidence of the senses more than to theories'.

The composite picture which these descriptions yield is not a very clear one. It is certainly true that most of the great metaphysicians have proposed radically revised pictures of the world, bold, comprehensive and often startling; and that most of them have accorded a central place in the picture to some few key concepts, or to some specially favored type of entities given the title of 'substance'. It is also true that the choice of key concepts and entities, and the resultant picture of the world, have varied greatly from one metaphysician to another.

Sometimes even 'substance' has been dethroned, e. Besides God, the divine substance, who has a place in most systems, Descartes recognized two types of substance, matter and minds; Berkeley one only, minds or spirits; Leibniz a class of entities monads each of which, though non-spatial and non-temporal, was somehow a model of our entire universe. Spinoza recognized only one comprehensive substance, God or Nature, infinite and eternal, of which mind and matter were merely two aspects.

Kant regarded substance as belonging to the world of our ordinary experience, yet set Reality itself, as totally unknowable, outside that world. Western Philosophy and Philosophers, As Aristotle importantly and profoundly says;. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, as we would say, that from which comes the beginning of the change. Aristotle , Metaphysics Unless the further factor is active , there will still be no movement. Aristotle , Metaphysics There must then be a principle of such a kind that its substance is activity.

I feel quite sure that if Aristotle had known of Huygens' work on Wave-Motion, along with the work of Newton and Leibniz, who all lived several thousand years later in human history then Aristotle would have solved the problem of how Matter exists in this Space of our Universe. Unfortunately no formal knowledge of Wave-Motion existed then, hence there was no obvious solution as there now is. Thus he was confronted, along with all Philosophers, with the Problem of the One and the Many;.

Now there are several ways in which the one and the many are in opposition. One of these lies in the fact that the one and the many are opposed as indivisible and divisible. What is either divided or divisible is accounted for as a kind of plurality, whereas what is indivisible or not divided is said to be a unity. Aristotle , Metaphysics Multiplicity cannot be derived from a necessarily single thing. The solution is to realize that Space is Moving, that it is the Motion of Space which is the second thing that can Exist within the One thing.

So we see that Aristotle's required 'Activity' is in fact a Wave-Activity. If we now return to Aristotle , we also see how the Wave-Motion of Space is consistent with his Metaphysical Principles, we need simply make two additions to his sentence as underlined;. And thus we are now led to the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter WSM in Space, and at last to a simple and elegant solution to the problem that the great Aristotle formalized so long ago.

As Albert Einstein wrote;. The subtlety of the concept of space was enhanced by the discovery that there exist no completely rigid bodies. All bodies are elastically deformable.

The existence of forms, categories, and particulars

Albert Einstein. It is interesting and perhaps surprising , that 2, years ago Aristotle had already considered and rejected such an origin Big Bang for the universe;.

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Alternatively, suppose we were to accept the mythical genesis of the world from night or the natural philosophers' claim that 'all things were originally together. How is everything to be set in motion, unless there is actually to be some cause of movement? Matter is not going to set itself in motion - its movement depends on a motive cause.

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  6. Space has always existed, as have the Wave-Motions which flow through this Space. Creation, like the Particle and the boundary, are human constructions which do not physically exist. As only One thing, Space, exists, there can be no boundary to Space as a boundary is between two things thus Space is unbounded and therefore Infinite. As Blake famously wrote;.


    If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would be seen as it is, infinite. William Blake. Spinoza perfectly states the logic of One Infinite Substance ;. No two or more substances can have the same attribute and it appertains to the nature of substance that it should exist. It must therefore exist finitely or infinitely.